With the advent of oil-wealth in the 20th century came exposure to outside influences, such as Western housing styles, furnishings, and clothes. Please click here The confidential report obtained by the media house stated that the Kingdom was assisted by Chinese geologists to produce over 90,000 tonnes of uranium from three major deposits in the centre and northwest of Saudi, near the NEOM megacity development. Scuba diving, windsurfing, sailing and basketball (which is played by both men and women) are also popular with the Saudi Arabian national basketball team winning bronze at the 1999 Asian Championship. In 2016, the General Entertainment Authority was formed to oversee the expansion of the Saudi entertainment sector. [409], The Kingdom's most dramatic agricultural accomplishment, noted worldwide, was its rapid transformation from importer to exporter of wheat. [270] Saudi Arabia was also involved in the CIA-led Timber Sycamore covert operation to train and arm Syrian rebels. Click the "ADD NEW PAGE" or "EDIT" button at the top of any page to get started! In the winter the temperature rarely drops below 0 °C (32 °F) with the exception of mostly the northern regions of the country where annual snowfall, in particular in the mountainous regions of Tabuk province, is not uncommon. SaudiGulf Airlines (Arabic: السعودية الخليجية) is a carrier located in Dammam. Negotiations to join had focused on the degree to which Saudi Arabia is willing to increase market access to foreign goods and in 2000, the government established the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority to encourage foreign direct investment in the kingdom. [416], Starting December 2018, the kingdom will offer an electronic visa for foreign visitors to attend sport events and concerts. [547], On 31 October 2019, Saudi Arabia hosted the first ever women's wrestling match held by the World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE). [47] In addition to being a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council, it is an active and founding member of the United Nations, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Arab League, OPEC and is also a major non-NATO ally. [86] Ufsurid rule was weakened after Persian rulers of Hormuz captured Bahrain and Qatif in 1320. [267] At least 56,000 people have been killed in armed violence in Yemen between January 2016 and October 2018. This page was last edited on 25 August 2019, at 16:51. In 1966 an earthwork in Tarout exposed an ancient burial field that yielded a large, impressive statue dating to the Dilmunite period (mid 3rd millennium BC). [405] The deal raised more than initially planned and was the first time the PIF had incorporated loans and debt instruments into its funding. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south; it is separated from Egypt and Israel in the north-west by the Gulf of Aqaba. Oil provided Saudi Arabia with economic prosperity and substantial political leverage internationally. Although this is normally translated as "the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia" in English,[49] it literally means "the Saudi Arab kingdom",[50] or "the Arab Saudi Kingdom". Saudi Arabia's command economy is petroleum-based; roughly 63%[384] of budget revenues and 67%[385] of export earnings come from the oil industry. The State of Lihyan: A New Perspective – p. 192, Rohmer, J. [295] On 19 August 2020, Congressional Democrats asked the US secretary of state, Mike Pompeo, to provide information about China’s alleged role in building a uranium processing facility in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia has since been a totalitarian absolute monarchy, effectively a hereditary dictatorship governed along Islamist lines. ", "These may be the world's first images of dogsand they're wearing leashes", The World around the Old Testament: The People and Places of the Ancient Near East, The political map of Arabia and the Middle East in the third century AD revealed by a Sabaean inscription, "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia", Reaching for Power: The Shi'a in the Modern Arab World, "History of Saudi Arabia. In 2005, the first municipal elections were held. [3] Similarly, The Chronicle of Higher Education wrote in 2010 that "the country needs educated young Saudis with marketable skills and a capacity for innovation and entrepreneurship. Saudi Sign Language is the principal language of the deaf community, amounting to around 100,000 speakers. By 1891, the Al Rashid were victorious and the Al Saud were driven into exile in Kuwait.[80]. Petroleum was discovered on 3 March 1938 and followed up by several other finds in the Eastern Province. Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula and is the largest country in area in the Middle East—but 95 percent of the land is desert, Mountains running parallel to the Red Sea slope down to plains along the Persian Gulf (called Arabian Gulf by Arab states), Below the arid landscape, oil has made this desert kingdom one of the wealthiest nations in the world. [229][230] However, the relationship between Saudi Arabia and the United States became strained and have witnessed major decline during the last years of the Obama administration,[231][232][233] although Obama had authorized US forces to provide logistical and intelligence support to the Saudis in their military intervention in Yemen, establishing a joint coordination planning cell with the Saudi military that is helping manage the war,[234][235] and CIA used Saudi bases for drone assassinations in Yemen. The Red Sea also contains many offshore reefs including several true atolls. 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Data for Saudi Arabia comes primarily from general population surveys, which are less reliable than censuses or large-scale demographic and health surveys for estimating minority-majority ratios. [3] Other sources report differing estimates. The Bani Khalid tribe later revolted against them in 17th century and took control. Dates, once a staple of the Saudi diet, are now mainly grown for global humanitarian aid. [506] Atheists are legally designated as terrorists. In 1978, the country built its first grain silos. "[305] Former CIA director James Woolsey described it as "the soil in which Al-Qaeda and its sister terrorist organizations are flourishing. Birds include falcons (which are caught and trained for hunting), eagles, hawks, vultures, sandgrouse, and bulbuls. [178] In addition, they have had a major role in the judicial and education systems[179] and a monopoly of authority in the sphere of religious and social morals. [507][506] No churches, temples or other non-Muslim houses of worship are permitted in the country. Challenges to the Saudi economy include halting or reversing the decline in per-capita income, improving education to prepare youth for the workforce and providing them with employment, diversifying the economy, stimulating the private sector and housing construction, and diminishing corruption and inequality. [553] Other sources had complained of an absence of laws criminalizing violence against women. A number of scholars have suggested that Dilmun originally designated the eastern province of Saudi Arabia, notably linked with the major Dilmunite settlements of Umm an-Nussi and Umm ar-Ramadh in the interior and Tarout on the coast. About 50% of drinking water comes from desalination, 40% from the mining of non-renewable groundwater and 10% from surface water, especially in the mountainous southwest of the country. 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